Reserves are materials (such as books, AV materials, journal articles and/or photocopies, recordings, tests, non-book items) generally set aside temporarily for the educational and non-commercial use of students. Reserves are housed in a separate collection to which access is more restricted than is access to materials in the general collection. The purpose of the reserve collection is to:
- support the needs of a specific group of patrons within the Northland community (most often a class but may also be a student organization, faculty committee, etc.);
- provide timely, convenient, and efficient access to high-demand items; and
- protect materials that are at a high risk of theft or vandalism.
Use of reserve materials is restricted to members of the Northland community. However, members of the media interested in reviewing publications of an up-coming speaker or lecturer will be allowed to check out reserve items, assuming s/he has a Dexter Library community card. In order for the library staff to provide to faculty accurate statistics on usage of their reserve items and in order to track sometimes- missing reserve items, all reserve items MUST be checked out to the student using the materials—even if the student only wants to make a copy of the item.
The Dexter Library catalog lists reserve materials by course and by professor/instructor, which may be searched using the tab “Course Reserves.” All materials on reserve are also identifiable in the catalog in the location field of an item’s record.
The loan period is determined by the individual/group placing materials on reserve. Most materials placed on reserve are for in-library (ROOM) use only and circulate for 4 hours. Materials may also be designated as overnight (OVN) or three-day (3-DAY); the loan period for each reserve item is clearly marked on the item or the reserve cuff. Regardless of the type of loan, patrons should always verify with the Desk Clerk the date and time the materials are due before leaving the library.
Initiated by faculty in support of a specific course for all or part of a term.
Initiated by library staff to restrict access to high-demand items or those that are believed to be at high risk for disappearing.
Initiated by faculty, staff, or students for ongoing or temporary access to a particular set of materials. These reserves are reviewed annually and may be removed by the library staff if circulation of the materials does not seem to warrant their continuing to be made available or if interest in the issue they cover has waned on campus.
- Faculty/individuals must complete a “Reserve Request Form” (both sides) for each class for which they wish to create a reserve. Forms are available at the Circulation Desk or from a library staff member.
- Faculty may put on Reserve for each class a total of 40 items of any content in any format.
- The decision to place personal items on reserve remains with the faculty member/individual. While the library staff strive to ensure that personal materials are handled properly, they cannot guarantee nor do they assume responsibility for the abuse, destruction, loss, and/or theft of personal materials placed on reserve. Some minor wear to personal items should be expected as students frequently make photocopies from these works.
- Faculty/individuals should allow a minimum of 72 hours to have materials processed for reserve and ready for students to use. Reserve requests are processed in the order in which they are received.
Determining the need for copyright permission
Materials that do not need copyright permission for reserve include:
- exams, syllabi, instructor’s lecture notes
- government publications
- a single article from a journal to which the library subscribes
- a single chapter from a book owned by the library
- material for which the instructor owns the copyright
Materials that do need copyright permission for reserve include:
- a chapter or journal article from a title NOT owned by the library
- multiple articles from a single issue of a journal
- multiple chapters from a single book
- unpublished materials for which the instructor does not own copyright (e.g. student papers)
Dexter Library guidelines on copying for course reserves derive from the fair use provisions of the copyright law of the United States as found in Section 107 of Title 17 of the United States Code. Section 107 expressly permits the making of multiple copies for classroom use. The text of Section 107 is:
“Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified in that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:
- the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
- the nature of the copyrighted work;
- the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
- the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.”
The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.
Dexter Library staff reserve the right to refuse to place any item on reserve that appears to violate these copyright guidelines. The library also will not place on reserve published works intended to be “consumable” in the course of studying or teaching, including such materials as workbooks, exercises, standardized tests, and test booklets. Note: The convenience of the instructor or students is NOT one of the four factors for evaluating fair use; neither is the expense of the item nor the cost to students.
Note: The national interlibrary loan code prohibits borrowing books/media from other libraries for the purpose of placing them on reserve at the borrowing institution.
Guidelines on the Reproduction of Copyrighted Materials for Inclusion on Reserve
Photocopies or electronic scans created from books or journal issues owned by Dexter Library or a faculty member may be used one semester for each course and each instructor; subsequent uses will require permission from (and requisite payment, if any, to) the copyright owner. If the College has licensed electronic access to an article, faculty are encouraged to link to that resource.
Copies or scans created from journal issues or books that are not owned by the Dexter Library or the instructor may be used in course reserve only with permission of the copyright owner and payment of any requisite fee. Fair use does not apply in such cases. Faculty members are responsible for requesting copyright permission, with library staff providing what assistance they can.
Copies or scans of materials put on reserve should include the generic copyright warning: “This material may be protected by copyright. Further dissemination is prohibited.”
Guidelines for Placing AV materials on Reserve
Licensed copies and/or commercially purchased or rented copies of films, broadcasts, performances, audio, video, DVD, CD or other digital format owned by Dexter Library or an instructor may be placed on reserve. Northland community members should be aware of what constitutes public performance as AV materials without purchased or rented public performance rights can only be used in a face-to-face classroom setting by students enrolled in a specific class. What constitutes a public performance is regulated by copyright law, which provides for very specific exemptions to non-profit educational institutions. Material must be directly class related, be shown only in instructional venues (i.e. classrooms), and have restricted access to those enrolled in the course.
Note: None of the staff employed at Dexter Library has any special training or expertise in copyright law. They can only provide faculty and the campus community basic information concerning copyright law and assist in directing individuals to more authoritative sources of information. None of the information concerning copyright in any of the library policies should be taken as definitive or assumed to provide a legal interpretation of the laws.
United States Copyright Office (at the Library of Congress)
For all things copyright. Quick FAQ, basic copyright, policy and laws and more. Can search here for works registered and documents recorded by the U.S. Copyright Office since January 1, 1978.
from the CCC, Copyright Clearance Center.
Fair use outlined very first thing. A thorough tutorial in basic copyright for higher education by Georgia Harper at The University of Texas at Austin.
Welcome to the initial release of Stanford’s Copyright Renewal Database. This database makes searchable the copyright renewal records received by the US Copyright Office between 1950 and 1992 for books published in the US between 1923 and 1963. Note: the database includes ONLY US Class A (book) renewals.
Check out their resources and FAQ tabs for links to additional information sources on copyright issues.
Many of you may have seen reference to or heard of Creative Commons Licensing, frequently seen in articles/photos in Wikipedia. If you or your students have questions about what that means or if you, yourself, would like to publish using a Creative Commons License, this is the site to check out for answers to your questions.